Insulin is hormone that is necessary for converting glucose (sugar) into energy that human body uses for daily activities. It was discovered in 1921 in Toronto (Canada) by Frederick Grant Banting and Charles Best. Thereupon it was used as cure against Diabetes. Today insulin saves millions of lives all around the world which makes it one of the most useful and important drug.
Overload test after glucose consummation in case of healthy person and diabetist.
Diabetes type 1 (insulin dependent diabetes mellitus - IDDM) - also known as juvenile diabetes, usually occurs in younger population (children and younger adults). It occurs when human body doesn't produce insulin at all. It takes only one week to develop.
Symptoms of diabetes type 1 include thirst, frequently urination, fatigue, increased appetite, blurred vision, infections and irritations of the genitals and weight loss. At this stage of disorder treatment is highly necessary or human body will start production of ketones which lead to condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis. It includes vomiting, stomatch pain, rapid breathing, increased pulse rate and sleepiness. If not treated, diabetic ketoacidosis will lead to coma or death.
Unfortunately there is no cure for diabetes type 1. It can only be controled by insulin injections (not tablets), so regular monitoring of blood sugar level is very important otherwise level of glucose in blood will rise (Hyperglycaemia) or fall (Hypoglycaemia). Both conditions are extremely dangerous.
Diabetes type 2 (none insulin dependent diabetes mellitus - NIDDM) - is the most common type of diabetes and it occurs when body does not produce enough insulin or the cells ignore the insulin. It usually occurs in older population. Although average age for developing this disease is 52 it can happen to much younger people especially if they are fat. Also high blood pressure or high cholesterol can increase a risk.
Diabetes type 2 usually has no symptoms because it can take a few years before reaching a level that causes symptoms. Anyway if symptoms occur they are similar to Diabetes type 1.
Diabetes type 2 is not as much dangerous as type 1 so in many cases it can be controlled by changing lifestyle. Those changes comprehend proper diet, exercise and if it's necessary medicines such as tablets or insulin injections. Same like type 1 it requires regular monitoring of blood sugar.
Gestational Diabetes (GDM) - usually occur in second half of pregnancy. It happens to pregnant woman who hasn't previously had any kind of diabetes. This disorder occurs when mother's body isn't capable of producing enough insulin. Scientists believe that this problem occur due to hormones from baby's placenta. These hormones help the baby develop, but they also block mother's insulin activity. This leads to problem called insulin resistance. Gestational Diabetes occurs if mother's body isn't able to produce enough extra insulin to overcome this blocking problem.
Gestational Diabetes isn't permanent and it goes away after pregnancy is over, but those women who had this kind of diabetes during pregnancy have more chances for developing diabetes type 2 in the future. Also they may have Gestational Diabetes again in future pregnancies. Although this disorder isn't very dangerous for women it may harm baby's health in many ways.